That highly depends on city, industry, company and sometimes even within a company on the business unit, and what exactly you do and what projects you work for etc. Important strategic projects have more leverage to have HR paying more, than less important projects or business areas. So every kind of generalised form of information you find about this on the internet is inaccurate.
Best thing to do is networking, speaking with people (especially managers who can tell something about salary bands for specific functions and levels), once you know many people from many companies you get a better idea what are your boundaries in a negotiation.
Last but not least, change your company regularly. In the beginning maybe every 3-5 years, later on every 10 years. It is not possible to significantly increase your salary if you stay in the same company. They will tell you that’s not true and you just have to do this and that so you can get a higher level in some years etc. But that’s all nonsense. The only way to significantly increase your salary is to change regularly, not too often, but regularly.
And also, know what functions, levels and ranks exist in a company, this is very relevant in terms of salary and usually they try to put you in a lower level or rank if you don’t specifically ask for a specific level, so they have more flexibility to promote internal employees (most companies follow some Gaussian distribution in their ranks/levels, etc.). It is easy to get the right level from HR directly when you negotiate a new contract, and it’s 1000 times more difficult to get it or an increase of salary through promotion.