Both ground stations and Starlink terminals directly communicate with Starlink satellites. The ground stations connect Starlink satellites to the internet using local internet connectivity (fiber). There is no direct communication between ground stations and Starlink terminals.
There are no ground stations in Ukraine. However, SpaceX claims there are sufficient ground stations in neighbouring countries to provide Ukraine with full Starlink coverage.
My understanding is that the shipment we’ve seen in the images is far from capable of providing “people of Ukraine” with internet access. I.e. you can’t have a country worth of internet traffic going through those boxes we’ve seen. Or am I getting it wrong?
Of course, it could be still be helpful to provide some connectivity to crucial systems if they get completely disconnected.